Apr 17

Anaerobic top-down

Bottom-up MS studies typically employ a reduction and alkylation step that eliminates a class of PTM, S-thiolation. Given that molecular oxygen can mediate S-thiolation from reduced thiols, which are abundant in the reducing intracellular milieu, we investigated the possibility that some S-thiolation modifications are artifacts of protein preparation. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was chosen for this case study as it has a reactive surface cysteine residue, which is readily cysteinylated in vitro. The ability of oxygen to generate S-thiolation artifacts was tested by comparing purification of SOD1 from postmortem human cerebral cortex under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. S-thiolation was ∼50% higher in aerobically processed preparations, consistent with oxygen-dependent artifactual S-thiolation. The ability of endogenous small molecule disulfides (e.g. cystine) to participate in artifactual S-thiolation was tested by blocking reactive protein cysteine residues during anaerobic homogenization. A 50-fold reduction in S-thiolation occurred indicating that the majority of S-thiolation observed aerobically was artifact. Tissue-specific artifacts were explored by comparing brain- and blood-derived protein, with remarkably more artifacts observed in brain-derived SOD1. Given the potential for such artifacts, rules of thumb for sample preparation are provided. This study demonstrates that without taking extraordinary precaution, artifactual S-thiolation of highly reactive, surface-exposed, cysteine residues can result.

Read the full paper: Artifacts to avoid while taking advantage of top-down mass spectrometry based detection of protein S-thiolation

Feb 19

Barnett Institute Core Mass Spectrometry Facility

View of our side of the Barnett Institute Core Mass Spectrometry Facility

View of our side of the Barnett Institute Core Mass Spectrometry Facility

Dec 27

Differential neuropeptidomics

BACKGROUND:

Neuropeptides are a diverse category of signaling molecules in the nervous system regulating a variety of processes including food intake, social behavior, circadian rhythms, learning, and memory. Both the identification and functional characterization of specific neuropeptides are ongoing fields of research. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of nervous tissues from a variety of organisms allows direct detection and identification of neuropeptides. Here, we demonstrate an analysis workflow that allows for the detection of differences in specific neuropeptides amongst a variety of neuropeptides being simultaneously measured. For sample preparation, we describe a straight-forward and rapid (minutes) method where individual adult Drosophila melanogaster brains are analyzed. Using a MATLAB-based data analysis workflow, also compatible with MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from other sample preparations and instrumentation, we demonstrate how changes in neuropeptides levels can be detected with this method.

RESULTS:

Over fifty isotopically resolved ion signals in the peptide mass range are reproducibly observed across experiments. MALDI-TOF MS profile spectra were used to statistically identify distinct relative differences in organ-wide endogenous levels of detected neuropeptides between biological conditions. In particular, three distinct levels of a particular neuropeptide, pigment dispersing factor, were detected by comparing groups of preprocessed spectra obtained from individual brains across three different D. melanogaster strains, each of which express different amounts of this neuropeptide. Using the same sample preparation, MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that at least 14 ion signals observed across experiments are indeed neuropeptides. Among the identified neuropeptides were three products of the neuropeptide-like precursor 1 gene previously not identified in the literature.

CONCLUSIONS:

Using MALDI-TOF MS and preprocessing/statistical analysis, changes in relative levels of a particular neuropeptide in D. melanogaster tissue can be statistically detected amongst a variety of neuropeptides. While the data analysis methods should be compatible with other sample preparations, the presented sample preparation method was sufficient to identify previously unconfirmed D. melanogaster neuropeptides.

Read the full paper: A rapid MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry workflow for Drosophila melanogaster differential neuropeptidomics

Dec 20

Isotopic Fine Structure HDX MS

Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) is used for analyzing protein dynamics, protein folding/unfolding, and molecular interactions. Until this study, HDX MS experiments employed mass spectral resolving powers that afforded only one peak per nominal mass in a given peptide’s isotope distribution, and HDX MS data analysis methods were developed accordingly. A level of complexity that is inherent to HDX MS remained unaddressed, namely, various combinations of natural abundance heavy isotopes and exchanged deuterium shared the same nominal mass and overlapped at previous resolving powers. For example, an A + 2 peak is comprised of (among other isotopomers) a two-2H-exchanged/zero-13C isotopomer, a one-2H-exchanged/one-13C isotopomer, and a zero-2H-exchanged/two-13C isotopomer. Notably, such isotopomers differ slightly in mass as a result of the ~3 mDa mass defect between 2H and 13C atoms. Previous HDX MS methods did not resolve these isotopomers, requiring a natural-abundance-only (before HDX or “time zero”) spectrum and data processing to remove its contribution. It is demonstrated here that high-resolution mass spectrometry can be used to detect isotopic fine structure, such as in the A + 2 profile example above, deconvolving the isotopomer species resulting from deuterium incorporation. Resolving isotopic fine structure during HDX MS therefore permits direct monitoring of HDX, which can be calculated as the sum of the fractional peak magnitudes of the deuterium-exchanged isotopomers. This obviates both the need for a time zero spectrum as well as data processing to account for natural abundance heavy isotopes, saving instrument and analysis time.

Read the full paper: Resolving Isotopic Fine Structure to Detect and Quantify Natural Abundance- and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange-Derived Isotopomers

Aug 26

Structural impact of Cys mod of SOD1

The metalloenzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) catalyzes the reduction of superoxide anions into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide can oxidize SOD1, resulting in aberrant protein conformational changes, disruption of SOD1 function, and DNA damage. Cells may have evolved mechanisms of regulation that prevent such oxidation. We observed that cysteinylation of cysteine 111 (Cys111) of SOD1 prevents oxidation by peroxide (DOI 10.1021/bi4006122 ). In this article, we characterize cysteinylated SOD1 using differential scanning fluorometry and X-ray crystallography. The stoichiometry of binding was one cysteine per SOD1 dimer, and there does not appear to be free volume for a second cysteine without disrupting the dimer interface. Much of the three-dimensional structure of SOD1 is unaffected by cysteinylation. However, local conformational changes are observed in the cysteinylated monomer that include changes in conformation of the electrostatic loop (loop VII; residues 133-144) and the dimer interface (loop VI; residues 102-115). In addition, our data shows how cysteinylation precludes oxidation of cysteine 111 and suggests possible cross-talk between the dimer interface and the electrostatic loop.

Read the full paper: Structural Consequences of Cysteinylation of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase

Aug 26

Cysteine modification blocks oxidative damage

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cytotoxic. To remove ROS, cells have developed ROS-specific defense mechanisms, including the enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anions into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Although hydrogen peroxide is less reactive than superoxide, it is still capable of oxidizing, unfolding, and inactivating SOD1, at least in vitro. To explore the relevance of post-translational modification (PTM) of SOD1, including peroxide-related modifications, SOD1 was purified from postmortem human nervous tissue. As much as half of all purified SOD1 protein contained non-native post-translational modifications (PTMs), the most prevalent modifications being cysteinylation and peroxide-related oxidations. Many PTMs targeted a single reactive SOD1 cysteine, Cys111. An intriguing observation was that unlike native SOD1, cysteinylated SOD1 was not oxidized. To further characterize how cysteinylation may protect SOD1 from oxidation, cysteine-modified SOD1 was prepared in vitro and exposed to peroxide. Cysteinylation conferred nearly complete protection from peroxide-induced oxidation of SOD1. Moreover, SOD1 that has been cysteinylated and peroxide oxidized in vitro comprised a set of PTMs that bear a striking resemblance to the myriad of PTMs observed in SOD1 purified from human tissue.

Read the full paper: Post-Translational Modification by Cysteine Protects Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase from Oxidative Damage

Jan 17

LC-MS performance evaluation

Selecting a suitable nano-liquid chromatography system (LC), ionization source and mass spectrometer for LC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) studies is complicated by numerous competing technologies. This study compares four popular nano-LC systems, four ionization sources and three MS facilities that use completely different LC-MS-MS systems. Statistically significant differences in LC performance were identified with similarly performing Proxeon, Waters and Eksigent nanoLC-Ultra systems [retention time routinely at 0.7-0.9% relative standard deviation (RSD)], and all outperformed the Eksigent nanoLC-2D (RSD ∼2%). In addition, compatibility issues were identified between the Bruker HCT ion trap mass spectrometer and both the Eksigent nanoLC-2D and the Bruker nanoelectrospray source. The electrospray source itself had an unexpected and striking effect on chromatographic reproducibility on the Bruker HCT ion trap. The New Objective nanospray source significantly outperformed the Bruker nanospray source in retention time RSD (1% RSD versus 14% RSD, respectively); and the Bruker nebulized nanospray source outperformed both of these traditional, non-nebulized sources (0.5% RSD in retention time). Finally, to provide useful benchmarks for overall proteomics sensitivity, different LC-MS-MS platforms were compared by analyzing a range of concentrations of tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin at three MS facilities. The results indicate that similar sensitivity can be realized with a Bruker HCT-Ultra ion trap, a Thermo LTQ-Velos Linear ion trap and a Thermo LTQ-Orbitrap XL-ETD.

Read the full paper: Performance Comparisons of Nano-LC Systems, Electrospray Sources and LC–MS-MS Platforms

Aug 01

X-linking MS analysis

The small quantities of protein required for mass spectrometry (MS) make it a powerful tool to detect binding (protein-protein, protein-small molecule, etc.) of proteins that are difficult to express in large quantities, as is the case for many intrinsically disordered proteins. Chemical cross-linking, proteolysis, and MS analysis, combined, are a powerful tool for the identification of binding domains. Here, we present a traditional approach to determine protein-protein interaction binding sites using heavy water ((18)O) as a label. This technique is relatively inexpensive and can be performed on any mass spectrometer without specialized software.

Read the full paper: Mass spectrometry tools for analysis of intermolecular interactions

Dec 14

Stabilizing SOD1

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder characterized by the death of both upper and lower motor neurons and by 3- to 5-yr median survival postdiagnosis. The only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of ALS, Riluzole, has at best, moderate effect on patient survival and quality of life; therefore innovative approaches are needed to combat neurodegenerative disease. Some familial forms of ALS (fALS) have been linked to mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The dominant inheritance of mutant SOD1 and lack of symptoms in knockout mice suggest a “gain of toxic function” as opposed to a loss of function. A prevailing hypothesis for the mechanism of the toxicity of fALS-SOD1 variants, or the gain of toxic function, involves dimer destabilization and dissociation as an early step in SOD1 aggregation. Therefore, stabilizing the SOD1 dimer, thus preventing aggregation, is a potential therapeutic strategy. Here, we report a strategy in which we chemically cross-link the SOD1 dimer using two adjacent cysteine residues on each respective monomer (Cys111). Stabilization, measured as an increase in melting temperature, of ∼20 °C and ∼45 °C was observed for two mutants, G93A and G85R, respectively. This stabilization is the largest for SOD1, and to the best of our knowledge, for any disease-related protein. In addition, chemical cross-linking conferred activity upon G85R, an otherwise inactive mutant. These results demonstrate that targeting these cysteine residues is an important new strategy for development of ALS therapies.

Read the full paper: Strategies for stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), the protein destabilized in the most common form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Sep 24

Isotopic calculator

Our previous work postulated a transition concept among different isotopic mass states (i.e., isotopic
species) of a molecule, and developed a hierarchical algorithm for accurately calculating their masses
and abundances. A theoretical mass spectrum can be generated by convoluting a peak shape function
to these discrete mass states. This approach suffers from limited memory if a level in the hierarchical
structure has too many mass states. Here we present a memory efficient divide-and-recursivelycombine algorithm to do the calculation, which also improves the truncation method used in the
previous hierarchical algorithm. Instead of treating all of the elements in a molecule as a whole, the
new algorithm first ‘strips’ each element one by one. For the mass states of each element, a
hierarchical structure is established and kept in the memory. This process reduces the memory
usage by orders of magnitude (e.g., for bovine insulin, memory can be reduced from gigabytes to
kilobytes). Next, a recursive algorithm is applied to combine mass states of elements to mass states of
the whole molecule. The algorithm described above has been implemented as a computer program
called Isotope Calculator, which was written in CRR. It is freely available under the GNU Lesser
General Public License from http://www.cs.brandeis.edu/hong/software.html or http://people.-
brandeis.edu/agar.

Download the calculator

Read the full paper: Memory-efficient calculation of the isotopic mass states of a molecule

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